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Accueil du site > Séminaires > A venir ...

A venir ...

 
Vendredi 4 Septembre 2015
Prof. Jeong Weon WU
Director of CNRS-Ewha International Research Center, Physics Department, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea
Optical properties of artificially structured materials
Photonic bandgap (PBG) material and metamaterial (MM) are artificially structured materials, which can exhibit optical properties not readily observed in natural materials. Depending on the size of individual constituents when compared with the wavelength of relevant electromagnetic wave, either diffraction/interference or effective medium description is employed to describe the optical phenomena. Examples of nonlinear optical process and lasing operation will be presented in PBG. Further, Pancharatnam-Berry phase will be discussed in manipulation of angular momentum of light in holographically generated PBG. MM is an important material system, which can be designed to show optical phenomena such as Fano resonance, optical chirality, generalized Snell's law, and spin Hall effect of light associated with Berry phase. Experimental demonstration of these phenomena in MM will be presented.

Jeudi 10 Septembre 2015
Dr. Eloïse Gaillou
Conservateur Adjoint Musée de minéralogie, Mines ParisTech, 60, Bd St Michel, 75272 Paris Cedex 06
High spatial resolution FTIR and Raman mapping of highly strained pink diamonds
Pink diamonds are among the rarest and most valuable of gems, yet the origin of the pink color is still not fully understood. The pink color is restricted to micrometer-thick lamellae or bands oriented along <111>, which are created by plastic deformation, during a post growth event. Studies showed that plastic deformation is accommodated by twinning for some pink diamonds. This lecture will focus on presenting the physical properties of pink diamonds and how the color is generated. For that purpose, we will show high spatial resolution Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy data which gave us information about the repartition of the defects and of the remaining strain in the diamond structure, respectively. Raman spectroscopy shows that the pink areas are defective zones, with a high density of photoluminescent (PL) defects. Raman mapping revealed that the strain is mostly localized at the pink lamellae for some diamonds, while is ubiquitous in another group of diamonds. The highest amount of strain recorded was 3 GPa over 1µm in a group 2 pink diamond. At the intersection of two pink lamellae, the strain is so intense that the diamond Raman band displays 4 lines, indicating at least two highly stressed regions in the probed volume, which is the first time such a phenomenon is reported in a natural sample. Natural diamond shows that it can accommodate a large amount of stress during plastic deformation in mantle conditions by mechanical twinning. Still, large amount of strain remains in the diamond structure, which does not seem to affect the diamond integrity. Plastic deformation creates new PL (and CL) centers and most likely also the center responsible for the pink color, which is still unidentified.

Jeudi 17 Septembre 2015
Jean-Pierre Joly
Conseiller auprès du Département des Technologies Solaires, CEA INES, 50 Avenue du Lac Léman, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac, France
Marchés et technologies photovoltaïques : Situation actuelle et perspectives
L’énergie solaire photovoltaïque a connu un développement remarquable dans les dernières années et est devenue un contributeur significatif à la production d’électricité dans de nombreux pays. Un cercle vertueux a pu être créé aboutissant à une forte baisse des prix grâce au développement d’un marché de masse. Cela a été rendu possible par la conjonction entre les politiques d’incitation mises en place à partir des années 2000 et une intense recherche d’amélioration des technologies. Nous détaillerons donc les différentes technologies et leurs évolutions et nous mettrons en perspective les développements futurs du marché à partir de ces évolutions et de l’état actuel du marché.

Vendredi 18 Septembre 2015
Kenichi NAKASHIMA
Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science & Engineering, Saga University, Japan
Polymeric Micelles: Basic Aspects and Applications
Polymeric micelles are formed from block copolymers (e.g. AB diblock copolymer) in a selective solvent. If the A-block is soluble in a solvent while the B block is insoluble, the AB diblock copolymer forms a micelle composed of B-core and A-corona. Polymeric micelles have many features compared with conventional micelles formed from low molecular-weight surfactants.
Their features are:

(i) They have a larger diameter ranging from ca. 20 to ca. 150 nm.
(ii) Various polymers can be employed for the constituent blocks.
(iii) Exchange of unimers between micelles and bulk phase is slow.
(iv) Frozen micelles are formed if the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the core-forming block is lower than room temperature.
(v) Unimer micelles can be formed under some condition.


In my talk, I would like to explain basic aspects of polymeric micelles first. Then, I would like to show several examples of the applications of polymeric micelles such as:

(a) Fluorescence ON-OFF switching by polymeric micelles
(b) Synthesis of inorganic hollow nanoparticles templated by polymeric micelles.

References
[1] K. Nakashima and P. Bahadur, Adv. Colloids Interface Sci. 2006, 123-126, 75-96.
[2] Manickam Sasidharan and Kenichi Nakashima, Acc. Chem. Res. 2014, 47, 157-167.
[3] Sudhina Guragain, Bishnu Prasad Bastakoti, Victor Malgras, Kenichi Nakashima, andYusuke Yamauchi, Chem. Eur. J. 2015, 21, in press.

Jeudi 24 Septembre 2015
Fabrice MATHEVET
Groupe de Chimie des Polymères, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire UMR 8232, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris, France
Self-organized semiconducting (macro)molecular materials for organic electronics
The self-organization of π-conjugated organic materials forming highly ordered supramolecular architectures has been extensively investigated in the last two decades in view of optoelectronic applications. Indeed, the control of both the mesoscopic and nanoscale organization within thin semiconducting films is the key issue for the improvement of charge transport properties and achievement of high charge carrier mobilities. These well-ordered materials are currently either self-organized semiconducting polymers[1] or liquid crystals[2]. In this context, we proposed to investigate the self-organization of semiconducting liquid crystalline materials incorporating different kind of π-conjugated systems in unique molecular or macromolecular architectures. Here, we will describe the design and synthesis of (i) dyads and triads combining discotic or calamitic π-conjugated mesogens, and (ii) side-chain liquid crystal semiconducting polymers where the backbone is a π-conjugated polymer and the side groups are π-conjugated discotic mesogens.[3] We will give the details on the synthesis, structural characterization and morphology studied by Polarized-light Optical Microscopy (POM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Temperature-dependent small-angle X-ray diffraction, Grazing-incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Moreover, their charge transport properties studied in OFET configuration will also be depicted. [1] Tsao, H. N.; Müllen, K., Chem. Soc. Rev. 39, 2372 (2010). [2] Shimizu, Y.; Oikawa, K.; Nakayama K.-I; Guillon, D. J. Mater. Chem., 17, 4223 (2007). [3] a) Tahar-Djebbar, I.; Nekelson, F.; Heinrich, B.; Donnio, B.; Guillon, D.; Kreher, D.; Mathevet, F.; Attias, A.-J. Chem. Mater. 23, 4653 (2011). b) Zeng, D.; Tahar-Djebbar, I.; Xiao, Y.; Kayunkid, N.; Brinkmann, M.; Guillon, D.; Heinrich, B.; Donnio, B.; A.; Lacaze, E.; Kreher, D.; Mathevet, F.; Attias, A-J Macromolecules 47, 1715 (2014).

Jeudi 8 Octobre 2015
Pr. Paul KNOCHEL
Département de Chimie, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Münich, Allemagne
Chimie organométallique polyfonctionnelle en synthèse hétérocyclique

Jeudi 15 Octobre 2015
Pierre SENS
ESPCI/Curie, Paris

Jeudi 29 Octobre 2015
Jean-Marie DUBOIS
Institut Jean Lamour (UMR 7198 CNRS – Université de Lorraine), Parc de Saurupt, CS50840, F-54011 Nancy
Push-Pull Alloys and the Legacy of Dan Shechtman
With his famous discovery of quasicrystalline order in 1982-84, Dan Shechtman, the 2011 Nobel Laureate for Chemistry, has granted us with a fascinating field in materials science that has nowadays spread out to a variety of domains in metallurgy, geology, polymer science, artificial nanostructured materials, low temperature physics, and art. Push-pull alloys stand at the heart of the heritage and teach us a lot about the roots of order in Nature, its influence on properties, and by the way open new niches for applications. A short review of the most salient features of this domain will be given. We will begin with a simplified view at the way atomic order may be described in complex intermetallics and quasicrystals. The talk will continue with electron transport properties, which provide a signature of the breakdown of periodic order in those systems made of metals. We will then examine surface properties, with a view at the potential application niches and one, yet commercially available, application will be addressed. The talk will merely draw attention to A-B-C ternary alloys, in which the elemental constituents A, B and C are chosen in such a way that B-C interactions are repulsive, but A-B and A-C are attractive in the respective binary systems. I call such alloys “push-pull alloys” in reminiscence of push-pull amplifiers that are designed to amplify an electric signal. Push-pull alloys amplify complexity, forming complex intermetallics with tens to thousands atoms per unit cell. Few of them lead to the ultimate degree of complexity, when quasiperiodic order substitutes for crystal periodicity, which opens the way to discovering unprecedented properties such as heat insulation in Al62Cu25Fe13 (at. %). Many more compounds are known today, which share the same elemental characteristics (the picture may be extended to specific binary alloys). The results will be interpreted in terms of self-organized criticality [1]. In order to promote discussion about the essence of the quasicrystalline state (“why are the atoms where they are?”), a preliminary model will be suggested. It is based on the assumption that d-like electrons, facing the energy gaps opened at the boundaries of the Jones zone via Mizutani’s interference rule [2], impose a second wavelength to the scattering mechanism that is different from the one characteristic of the (orthogonal) s-p wave functions. Appropriate tuning of the two interference systems may cancel periodicity as predicted by the Lifshitz-Petrich model [3]. 1. P. Bak, How Nature works: the science of self-organized criticality (Copernicus Press, New York, 1996). 2. U. Mizutani et al., Chem. Soc. Rev. 41 (2012) 6799-6820. DOI: 10.1039/c2cs35161g. 3. R. Lifshitz and D.M. Petrich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79-7 (1997) 1261-1264.

Jeudi 19 Novembre 2015
Khalifa AGUIR
Institut Matériaux Microélectronique Nanosciences de Provence, IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, Universités d'Aix-Marseille et de Toulon, Campus de St. Jérôme, 13397 Marseille, France
De l'intérêt de la miniaturisation des capteurs pour le suivi de la qualité de l'air