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CINaM - Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille

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A venir ...

 
Jeudi 09 Juillet 2015
Caroline Tardivat
Directrice, Ceramic Synthesis and Functionalization Laboratory, Laboratoire commun CNRS / Saint-Gobain CREE, Cavaillon, France
Non-SOFC applications of ion-conductive ceramics
Le Laboratoire de Synthèse et Fonctionnalisation des Céramiques, unité mixte de recherche CNRS-Saint-Gobain, mène des recherches académiques sur des sujets d’intérêt pour Saint-Gobain. L’une de ses thématiques de recherche concerne les céramiques conductrices. Ces matériaux sont bien connus pour leur application dans les piles à combustibles (SOFC). Le laboratoire explore d’autres applications de ces matériaux, dans des domaines comme la catalyse ou les réacteurs catalytiques membranaires.

Jeudi 23 Juillet 2015
Prof. Serge Mignani
Université Paris Descartes, PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS, UMR 860, Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie pharmacologiques et toxicologiques, 45 rue des Saints Pères, 75006, Paris, France
Current Challenges and Future Directions for Nanomedicine in Oncology
The main objective of nanomedicine research is the development of nanoparticules as drug delivery systems or drugs per se to tackle diseases, such as cancer, which are a leading cause of death within developed nations. Nanotechnology, in particular the nanocarrier approach to drug delivery, has attracted much attention in the development of targeted anticancer therapies aimed at avoiding, for instance, the systemic toxicities of classical small molecule cytotoxic drugs. The nanotherapeutic technologies currently used and proposed for anticancer drug delivery therapies are as follows: polymer-drug conjugates, polymer micelles, liposomes, dendrons and dendrimers. Other nanoparticles such as mesoporous silica, albumin nanoparticles, metallic nanopaticles, chitosan nanoparticles etc. have also been described with various applications including drug delivery, catalysis and imaging. A new highly active field in nanomedicine has recently paved the way towards a new therapeutic approach to treating cancers using nanoparticles as drugs. Thus a new era in medicine has begun with the expanded use of nanoparticles in several therapeutic domains such as: 1) companion diagnostic imaging and prognostic systems to stratify patients (personalized medicine and theranostic approaches); 2) tissue engineering (biomaterial domain); 3) micro- and nano-structured lab-on-a-chip systems for the detection of disease markers in blood; and 4) thermo-sensitive nanoparticle formulations. Results from pre-clinical and clinical trials using nanoparticles are encouraging, suggesting that nanoparticles provide opportunities to design and tune particular properties of drugs. Such interventions are not possible with other types of therapeutics and have thus fuelled much enthusiasm with regards the wealth of opportunities afforded by this emerging field of nanoscience in oncology. In the general sense, nanopharmaceuticals represent a complete therapeutic system that is 100% dedicated to benefitting patients. By providing multiple new therapeutic solutions that involve combination therapies, improved drug resistance outcome, and alternative administration strategies, this field of medicine is progressing at a very fast rate. The focus of this presentation will be analyzing the current challenges (open issues) and remaining issues facing this infinite armada in systematic cancer therapy. An important consideration is striking a correct balance between sophistication of nanocarriers to be used in the nanotherapies and their ease of development for example to deliver new molecular entities. Finally, the future of cancer nanomedicine will be presented and analyzed with regards nanoparticles in biosensing, drug delivery systems, bioimaging and long-term health effects.

Jeudi 10 Septembre 2015
Dr. Eloïse Gaillou
Conservateur Adjoint Musée de minéralogie, Mines ParisTech, 60, Bd St Michel, 75272 Paris Cedex 06
High spatial resolution FTIR and Raman mapping of highly strained pink diamonds
Pink diamonds are among the rarest and most valuable of gems, yet the origin of the pink color is still not fully understood. The pink color is restricted to micrometer-thick lamellae or bands oriented along <111>, which are created by plastic deformation, during a post growth event. Studies showed that plastic deformation is accommodated by twinning for some pink diamonds. This lecture will focus on presenting the physical properties of pink diamonds and how the color is generated. For that purpose, we will show high spatial resolution Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy data which gave us information about the repartition of the defects and of the remaining strain in the diamond structure, respectively. Raman spectroscopy shows that the pink areas are defective zones, with a high density of photoluminescent (PL) defects. Raman mapping revealed that the strain is mostly localized at the pink lamellae for some diamonds, while is ubiquitous in another group of diamonds. The highest amount of strain recorded was 3 GPa over 1µm in a group 2 pink diamond. At the intersection of two pink lamellae, the strain is so intense that the diamond Raman band displays 4 lines, indicating at least two highly stressed regions in the probed volume, which is the first time such a phenomenon is reported in a natural sample. Natural diamond shows that it can accommodate a large amount of stress during plastic deformation in mantle conditions by mechanical twinning. Still, large amount of strain remains in the diamond structure, which does not seem to affect the diamond integrity. Plastic deformation creates new PL (and CL) centers and most likely also the center responsible for the pink color, which is still unidentified.

Jeudi 17 Septembre 2015
Jean-Pierre Joly
Conseiller auprès du Département des Technologies Solaires, CEA INES, 50 Avenue du Lac Léman, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac, France
Marchés et technologies photovoltaïques : Situation actuelle et perspectives
L’énergie solaire photovoltaïque a connu un développement remarquable dans les dernières années et est devenue un contributeur significatif à la production d’électricité dans de nombreux pays. Un cercle vertueux a pu être créé aboutissant à une forte baisse des prix grâce au développement d’un marché de masse. Cela a été rendu possible par la conjonction entre les politiques d’incitation mises en place à partir des années 2000 et une intense recherche d’amélioration des technologies. Nous détaillerons donc les différentes technologies et leurs évolutions et nous mettrons en perspective les développements futurs du marché à partir de ces évolutions et de l’état actuel du marché.

Jeudi 24 Septembre 2015
Fabrice MATHEVET
Groupe de Chimie des Polymères, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire UMR 8232, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris, France
Self-organized semiconducting (macro)molecular materials for organic electronics
The self-organization of π-conjugated organic materials forming highly ordered supramolecular architectures has been extensively investigated in the last two decades in view of optoelectronic applications. Indeed, the control of both the mesoscopic and nanoscale organization within thin semiconducting films is the key issue for the improvement of charge transport properties and achievement of high charge carrier mobilities. These well-ordered materials are currently either self-organized semiconducting polymers[1] or liquid crystals[2]. In this context, we proposed to investigate the self-organization of semiconducting liquid crystalline materials incorporating different kind of π-conjugated systems in unique molecular or macromolecular architectures. Here, we will describe the design and synthesis of (i) dyads and triads combining discotic or calamitic π-conjugated mesogens, and (ii) side-chain liquid crystal semiconducting polymers where the backbone is a π-conjugated polymer and the side groups are π-conjugated discotic mesogens.[3] We will give the details on the synthesis, structural characterization and morphology studied by Polarized-light Optical Microscopy (POM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Temperature-dependent small-angle X-ray diffraction, Grazing-incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Moreover, their charge transport properties studied in OFET configuration will also be depicted. [1] Tsao, H. N.; Müllen, K., Chem. Soc. Rev. 39, 2372 (2010). [2] Shimizu, Y.; Oikawa, K.; Nakayama K.-I; Guillon, D. J. Mater. Chem., 17, 4223 (2007). [3] a) Tahar-Djebbar, I.; Nekelson, F.; Heinrich, B.; Donnio, B.; Guillon, D.; Kreher, D.; Mathevet, F.; Attias, A.-J. Chem. Mater. 23, 4653 (2011). b) Zeng, D.; Tahar-Djebbar, I.; Xiao, Y.; Kayunkid, N.; Brinkmann, M.; Guillon, D.; Heinrich, B.; Donnio, B.; A.; Lacaze, E.; Kreher, D.; Mathevet, F.; Attias, A-J Macromolecules 47, 1715 (2014).

Jeudi 8 Octobre 2015
Pr. Paul KNOCHEL
Département de Chimie, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Münich, Allemagne
Chimie organométallique polyfonctionnelle en synthèse hétérocyclique

Jeudi 29 Octobre 2015
Jean-Marie DUBOIS
Institut Jean Lamour (UMR 7198 CNRS – Université de Lorraine), Parc de Saurupt, CS50840, F-54011 Nancy
Push-Pull Alloys and the Legacy of Dan Shechtman
With his famous discovery of quasicrystalline order in 1982-84, Dan Shechtman, the 2011 Nobel Laureate for Chemistry, has granted us with a fascinating field in materials science that has nowadays spread out to a variety of domains in metallurgy, geology, polymer science, artificial nanostructured materials, low temperature physics, and art. Push-pull alloys stand at the heart of the heritage and teach us a lot about the roots of order in Nature, its influence on properties, and by the way open new niches for applications. A short review of the most salient features of this domain will be given. We will begin with a simplified view at the way atomic order may be described in complex intermetallics and quasicrystals. The talk will continue with electron transport properties, which provide a signature of the breakdown of periodic order in those systems made of metals. We will then examine surface properties, with a view at the potential application niches and one, yet commercially available, application will be addressed. The talk will merely draw attention to A-B-C ternary alloys, in which the elemental constituents A, B and C are chosen in such a way that B-C interactions are repulsive, but A-B and A-C are attractive in the respective binary systems. I call such alloys “push-pull alloys” in reminiscence of push-pull amplifiers that are designed to amplify an electric signal. Push-pull alloys amplify complexity, forming complex intermetallics with tens to thousands atoms per unit cell. Few of them lead to the ultimate degree of complexity, when quasiperiodic order substitutes for crystal periodicity, which opens the way to discovering unprecedented properties such as heat insulation in Al62Cu25Fe13 (at. %). Many more compounds are known today, which share the same elemental characteristics (the picture may be extended to specific binary alloys). The results will be interpreted in terms of self-organized criticality [1]. In order to promote discussion about the essence of the quasicrystalline state (“why are the atoms where they are?”), a preliminary model will be suggested. It is based on the assumption that d-like electrons, facing the energy gaps opened at the boundaries of the Jones zone via Mizutani’s interference rule [2], impose a second wavelength to the scattering mechanism that is different from the one characteristic of the (orthogonal) s-p wave functions. Appropriate tuning of the two interference systems may cancel periodicity as predicted by the Lifshitz-Petrich model [3]. 1. P. Bak, How Nature works: the science of self-organized criticality (Copernicus Press, New York, 1996). 2. U. Mizutani et al., Chem. Soc. Rev. 41 (2012) 6799-6820. DOI: 10.1039/c2cs35161g. 3. R. Lifshitz and D.M. Petrich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79-7 (1997) 1261-1264.

Jeudi 19 Novembre 2015
Khalifa AGUIR
Institut Matériaux Microélectronique Nanosciences de Provence, IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, Universités d'Aix-Marseille et de Toulon, Campus de St. Jérôme, 13397 Marseille, France
De l'intérêt de la miniaturisation des capteurs pour le suivi de la qualité de l'air