Surface Nanostructuring for Energy

Responsable : Lionel Santinacci


In our group, we combine electrochemical surface nanostructuring with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate efficient systems for energy storage or production.

One-dimensional nanostructures such as nanoporous anodic alumina membranes (AAM), TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2-nt) and porous Si (PSi) are grown by anodic oxidation. Depending on the electrochemical parameters a wide range of morphologies can be formed.

These nanostructured surfaces exhibit different properties and can be used for various applications (more details). ALD is known as one of the most appropriate deposition method to coat tortuous substrates. It is thus employed to functionalize these surfaces to improve or modify their properties.

Structure surface et dynamique



Quantifying the Extent of Ligand Incorporation and the Effect on Properties of TiO 2 Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition Using an Alkoxide or an Alkylamide

Maxime Dufond, Maïmouna Diouf, Clémence Badie, Carine Laffon, Philippe Parent, Daniel Ferry, David Grosso, Jacques Kools, Simon Elliott, Lionel Santinacci

Chemistry of Materials 32:1393-1407 (2020)10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b03621

Ordered SnO2 nanotube arrays of tuneable geometry as a lithium ion battery material with high longevity

Ying Zhuo, Sarah Tymek, Hong Sun, Maïssa Barr, Lionel Santinacci, Julien Bachmann

Nanoscale Advances 2:1417-1426 (2020)10.1039/c9na00799g


Electrocatalytic Performance of Titania Nanotube Arrays Coated with MoS 2 by ALD toward the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

Yuanyuan Cao, Yanlin Wu, Clémence Badie, Stéphane Cadot, Clément Camp, Elsje Alessandra Quadrelli, Julien Bachmann

ACS Omega 4:8816-8823 (2019)10.1021/acsomega.9b00322

Enhanced Oxygen Evolution Reaction Activity of Nanoporous SnO2/Fe2O3/IrO2 Thin Film Composite Electrodes with Ultralow Noble Metal Loading

Sandra Haschke, Ying Zhuo, Stefanie Schlicht, Maïssa Barr, Ricarda Kloth, Maxime Dufond, Lionel Santinacci, Julien Bachmann

Advanced Materials Interfaces 6:1801432 (2019)10.1002/admi.201801432


Nanoscale chiral valley-photon interface through optical spin-orbit coupling

Su-Hyun Gong, Filippo Alpeggiani, Beniamino Sciacca, Erik Garnett, L. Kuipers

Science 359:443-447 (2018)10.1126/science.aan8010

Investigations of the Anodic Porous Etching of n-InP in HCl by Atomic Absorption and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopies

Lionel Santinacci, Muriel Bouttemy, Matthieu Petit, Anne-Marie Goncalves, Nathalie Simon, Jackie Vigneron, Arnaud Etcheberry

Journal of The Electrochemical Society 165:3131-3137 (2018)10.1149/2.0181804jes

The transformation behaviour of “alucones”, deposited by molecular layer deposition, in nanoporous Al2O3 layers

Kevin van de Kerckhove, Maïssa Barr, Lionel Santinacci, Philippe Vereecken, Jolien Dendooven, Christophe Detavernier

Dalton Transactions 47:5860-5870 (2018)10.1039/C8DT00723C

Boron Nitride as a Novel Support for Highly Stable Palladium Nanocatalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition

Matthieu Weber, Cassandre Lamboux, Bruno Navarra, Philippe Miele, Sandrine Zanna, Maxime Dufond, Lionel Santinacci, Mikhael Bechelany

Nanomaterials 8:849 (2018)10.3390/nano8100849


Atomic layer deposition of HfO2 for integration into three-dimensional metal–insulator–metal devices

Loïc Assaud, Kristina Pitzschel, Maïssa K. S. Barr, Matthieu Petit, Guillaume Monier, Margrit Hanbücken, Lionel Santinacci

Applied physics. A, Materials science & processing 123:768 (2017)10.1007/s00339-017-1379-2

Enhancement of Pd Catalytic Activity toward Ethanol Electrooxidation by Atomic Layer Deposition of SnO 2 onto TiO 2 Nanotubes

Maïssa Barr, Loïc Assaud, Nicolas Brazeau, Margrit Hanbücken, Spyridon Ntais, Lionel Santinacci, Elena Baranova

Journal of Physical Chemistry C 121:17727-17736 (2017)10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b05799

3D multi-energy deconvolution electron microscopy

Michiel de Goede, Eric Johlin, Beniamino Sciacca, Faysal Boughorbel, Erik Garnett

Nanoscale 9:684-689 (2017)10.1039/c6nr07991a

Integrating Sphere Microscopy for Direct Absorption Measurements of Single Nanostructures

Sander Mann, Beniamino Sciacca, Yunyan Zhang, Jia Wang, Evgenia Kontoleta, Huiyun Liu, Erik Garnett

ACS Nano 11:1412-1418 (2017)10.1021/acsnano.6b06534

Monocrystalline Nanopatterns Made by Nanocube Assembly and Epitaxy

Beniamino Sciacca, Annemarie Berkhout, Benjamin Brenny, Sebastian Oener, Marijn van Huis, Albert Polman, Erik Garnett

Advanced Materials 29 (2017)10.1002/adma.201701064

The Electrochemical Behavior of SnSb as an Anode for Li-ion Batteries Studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy

Alexander Tesfaye, Yasemin D. Yücel, Maïssa K.S. Barr, Lionel Santinacci, Florence Vacandio, Frédéric Dumur, Sébastien Maria, Laure Monconduit, Thierry Djenizian

Electrochimica Acta 256:155-161 (2017)10.1016/j.electacta.2017.10.031


Effect of surface roughness on metal enhanced fluorescence in planar substrates and optical fibers

Elizaveta Klantsataya, Alexandre François, Heike Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Beniamino Sciacca, Agnieszka Zuber, Tanya Monro

Optical Materials Express 6 (2016)10.1364/OME.6.002128

Protected Light-Trapping Silicon by a Simple Structuring Process for Sunlight-Assisted Water Splitting

L. Santinacci, M.W. Diouf, M.K.S. Barr, Bruno Fabre, L. Joanny, F. Gouttefangeas, G. Loget

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8:24810-24818 (2016)10.1021/acsami.6b07350

Solution-Grown Silver Nanowire Ordered Arrays as Transparent Electrodes

Beniamino Sciacca, Jorik van de Groep, Albert Polman, Erik Garnett

Advanced Materials 28:905-909 (2016)10.1002/adma.201504045


Ingénierie moléculaire et matériaux fonctionnels Sources et sondes ponctuelles 2

A joint project with Dr. Mikhael Bechelany, Institut Européen des Membranes (UMR 5635 University of Montpellier - CNRS) and Dr. Jean-Manuel Decams, Annealsys SAS on Metallic nanoclusters embedded in Nitride Nanolaminates for efficient gas separation membranes (MeNiNa).

This project is funded by the ANR from 2018 to 2021.



Thin film deposition

The group uses a Fiji 200 ALD reactor (Veeco-Cambridge Nanotech) coupled to a glovebox (Mbraun, Unilab). The equipment allows performing both thermal- and plasma-ALD on 200 mm samples. The system contains 4 solid/liquid precursor sources and 5 gas lines. The chamber can operate from room temperature till 400°C and it is equipped with a quartz crystal microbalance (Inficon), a spectroscopic ellipsometer (J. A. Woollam Co, M-2000V) to monitor, in realtime, the film thickness and quadrupole mass spectrometer (Hiden, HPR30 - 200 amu). The reactor is connected to a glove box (MBraun GmbH) to manipulate the samples under a controlled atmosphere and to fill sensitive and hazardous precursors.

A second, home-made, ALD reactor has been installed in 2018. Thermal-ALD processes can be performed on 100mm diameter samples at T<250°C using 4 solid/liquid precursor lines and 3 gas lines (O2,O3 and NH3)



The team owns several potentiostats/galvanostats to perform anodic oxidation of Al, Ti and Si to grow porous Al2O3 membranes, TiO2 nanotubes and macroporous Si, respectively. They are also used to perform electrochemical deposition of various materials within these nanostructures and to carry out both DC- and AC-electrochemical characterizations. The group uses a high voltage (100V/100mA) potentiostat for both DC- and AC-electrochemical measurements (Modulab, Solartron) and a high current (100V/1A) analog potentiostat (PAR 173). In addition, an Agilent high voltage source (two-electrode configuration) is used for Al high voltage anodization. Electrochemcial characterization is also performed using a rotating disk and ring disk electrode (Ametek, RDE636).

The photoelectrochemical properties of the functionalized surfaces are probed under white light (Oriel Apex) or monochromatic (Newport Cornerstone 130) illuminations using a PC-controlled potentiostat (PAR 273, 100V/1A).

Structure surface et dynamique 1


Thermal treatments

Tube furnace (Nabertherm, RHTC 80-230/15) to perform thermal treatments under controlled atmospheres up to 1500°C.



  • University of Rennes I - CNRSCollaboration with Dr. Gabriel Loget, ISCR (UMR 6226 University of Rennes - CNRS), on black Si grown by anodic etching functionnalized by ALD of TiO2.



  • Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nüremberg

French-Bavarian collaboration with Prof. Julien Bachmann, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, on Engineering of a photoelectrochemically active i-p interface has been started in 2014. The goal of this project is to create and characterize semiconductor junctions between thin layers of p-doped NiO and intrinsic (undoped) Sb2S3, then optimize their geometry and growth parameters in terms of performance towards photo-electrochemical transformations of water.

This project was funded by the CCUFB-BFHZ in 2014. It has been supported by the PROCOPE in 2016-17 (German Academic Exchange Service, French Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Education).

  • University of Ottawa

Since mid 2012, we have established a collaboration with Prof. Elena Baranova, head of the Laboratory on Electrochemical Engineering, on the Oxidation of ethanol or formic acid on nanostructured catalysts formed by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)

This project has been funded (2012-2013) by the Fonds France Canada pour la Recherche (Franco-Canadian Research Fund)

  • University of Pisa

Collaboration with Prof. Giuseppe Barillaro, Dpt of Information Engineering, on well-ordered Si micropillars grown by anodic etching and then functionnalized by ALD of TiO2.

Liens utiles